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Exploring the Association Linking Head Position and Sleep Architecture to Motor Impairment in Parkinson's Disease: An Exploratory Study.

Patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) tend to sleep more frequently in the supine position and less often change head and body position during sleep. Besides sleep quality and continuity, head and body positions are crucial for glymphatic system (GS) activity. This pilot study evaluated sleep architecture and head position during each sleep stage in idiopathic PD patients without cognitive impairment, correlating sleep data to patients' motor and non-motor symptoms (NMS). All patients underwent the multi-night recordings, which were acquired using the Sleep Profiler headband. Sleep parameters, sleep time in each head position, and percentage of slow wave activity (SWA) in sleep, stage 3 of non-REM sleep (N3), and REM sleep in the supine position were extracted. Lastly, correlations with motor impairment and NMS were performed. Twenty PD patients (65.7 ± 8.6 y.o, ten women) were included. Sleep architecture did not change across the different nights of recording and showed the prevalence of sleep performed in the supine position. In addition, SWA and N3 were more frequently in the supine head position, and N3 in the supine decubitus correlated with REM sleep performed in the same position; this latter correlated with the disease duration (correlation coefficient = 0.48, p -value = 0.03) and motor impairment (correlation coefficient = 0.53, p -value = 0.02). These preliminary results demonstrated the importance of monitoring sleep in PD patients, supporting the need for preventive strategies in clinical practice for maintaining the lateral head position during the crucial sleep stages (SWA, N3, REM), essential for permitting the GS function and activity and ensuring brain health.

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