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Neutralization of extracellular histones by sodium-Β-O-methyl cellobioside sulfate in septic shock.

BACKGROUND: Extracellular histones have been associated with severity and outcome in sepsis. The aim of the present study was to assess the effects of sodium-β-O-Methyl cellobioside sulfate (mCBS), a histone-neutralizing polyanion, on the severity and outcome of sepsis in an experimental model.

METHODS: This randomized placebo-controlled experimental study was performed in 24 mechanically ventilated female sheep. Sepsis was induced by fecal peritonitis. Animals were randomized to three groups: control, early treatment, and late treatment (n = 8 each). mCBS was given as a bolus (1 mg/kg) followed by a continuous infusion (1 mg/kg/h) just after sepsis induction in the early treatment group, and 4 h later in the late treatment group. Fluid administration and antimicrobial therapy were initiated 4 h T4 after feces injection, peritoneal lavage performed, and a norepinephrine infusion titrated to maintain mean arterial pressure (MAP) between 65-75 mmHg. The experiment was blinded and lasted maximum 24 h.

RESULTS: During the first 4 h, MAP remained > 65 mmHg in the early treatment group but decreased significantly in the others (p < 0.01 for interaction, median value at T4: (79 [70-90] mmHg for early treatment, 57 [70-90] mmHg for late treatment, and 55 [49-60] mmHg for the control group). mCBS-treated animals required significantly less norepinephrine to maintain MAP than controls (p < 0.01 for interaction) and had lower creatinine (p < 0.01), lactate (p < 0.01), and interleukin-6 (p < 0.01) levels, associated with reduced changes in H3.1 nucleosome levels (p = 0.02). Early treatment was associated with lower norepinephrine requirements than later treatment. Two control animals died; all the mCBS-treated animals survived.

CONCLUSIONS: Neutralization of extracellular histones with mCBS was associated with reduced norepinephrine requirements, improved tissue perfusion, less renal dysfunction, and lower circulating IL-6 in experimental septic shock and may represent a new therapeutic approach to be tested in clinical trials.

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