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The story of dexamethasone and how it became one of the most widely used drugs in neurosurgery.

Dexamethasone, a long-acting potent glucocorticoid, is one of the most widely used medications in neurosurgery. In this paper, the authors recount the history of dexamethasone's rise in neurosurgery and discuss its use in brain tumors in the context of emerging neuro-oncological immunotherapies. In 1958, Glen E. Arth synthesized a 16-alpha-methylated analog of cortisone (dexamethasone) for treatment of rheumatoid arthritis. Joseph Galicich, a neurosurgery resident at the time, applied the rheumatological drug to neurosurgery. He gave doses to patients who had undergone craniotomy for tumor removal and saw their paresis improve, midline shift resolve, and mortality rates decrease. He advocated for clinical trials and the drug became a mainstay in neurosurgery. As neuro-oncological treatments evolve to include immunotherapy, the immunosuppressive effects of dexamethasone are becoming an unwanted effect. The question then becomes: how does one treat the patient's symptoms if the only drug that has been used throughout history may become a detriment to their oncological treatment? Since its discovery, dexamethasone has maintained an impressive staying power in the field, acting as a standard drug for cerebral edema for more than 60 years. However, with the advent of immunotherapy, research is warranted to evaluate ways of treating symptomatic edema in the context of modern neuro-oncological therapies.

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