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Newly isolated Lactobacillus paracasei strain modulates lung immunity and improves the capacity to cope with influenza virus infection.

Microbiome 2023 November 24
BACKGROUND: The modulation of immune responses by probiotics is crucial for local and systemic immunity. Recent studies have suggested a correlation between gut microbiota and lung immunity, known as the gut-lung axis. However, the evidence and mechanisms underlying this axis remain elusive.

RESULTS: In this study, we screened various Lactobacillus (L.) strains for their ability to augment type I interferon (IFN-I) signaling using an IFN-α/β reporter cell line. We identified L. paracasei (MI29) from the feces of healthy volunteers, which showed enhanced IFN-I signaling in vitro. Oral administration of the MI29 strain to wild-type B6 mice for 2 weeks resulted in increased expression of IFN-stimulated genes and pro-inflammatory cytokines in the lungs. We found that MI29-treated mice had significantly increased numbers of CD11c+ PDCA-1+ plasmacytoid dendritic cells and Ly6Chi monocytes in the lungs compared with control groups. Pre-treatment with MI29 for 2 weeks resulted in less weight loss and lower viral loads in the lung after a sub-lethal dose of influenza virus infection. Interestingly, IFNAR1-/- mice did not show enhanced viral resistance in response to oral MI29 administration. Furthermore, metabolic profiles of MI29-treated mice revealed changes in fatty acid metabolism, with MI29-derived fatty acids contributing to host defense in a Gpr40/120-dependent manner.

CONCLUSIONS: These findings suggest that the newly isolated MI29 strain can activate host defense immunity and prevent infections caused by the influenza virus through the gut-lung axis. Video Abstract.

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