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The influence of propolis plus Hyoscyamus niger L. against COVID-19: A phase II, multicenter, placebo-controlled, randomized trial.

The incubation period of COVID-19 symptoms, along with the proliferation and high transmission rate of the SARS-CoV-2 virus, is the cause of an uncontrolled epidemic worldwide. Vaccination is the front line of prevention, and antiinflammatory and antiviral drugs are the treatment of this disease. In addition, some herbal therapy approaches can be a good way to deal with this disease. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of propolis syrup with Hyoscyamus niger L. extract in hospitalized patients with COVID-19 with acute disease conditions in a double-blinded approach. The study was performed on 140 patients with COVID-19 in a double-blind, randomized, and multicentral approach. The main inclusion criterion was the presence of a severe type of COVID-19 disease. The duration of treatment with syrup was 6 days and 30 CC per day in the form of three meals. On Days 0, 2, 4, and 6, arterial blood oxygen levels, C-reactive protein (CRP), erythrocyte sedimentation rate, and white blood cell, as well as the patient's clinical symptoms such as fever and chills, cough and shortness of breath, chest pain, and other symptoms, were recorded and analyzed. Propolis syrup with H. niger L. significantly reduces cough from the second day, relieving shortness of breath on the fourth day, and significantly reduces CRP, weakness, and lethargy, as well as significantly increased arterial blood oxygen pressure on the sixth day compared to the placebo group (p < 0.05). The results in patients are such that in the most severe conditions of the disease 80% < SpO2 (oxygen saturation), the healing process of the syrup on reducing CRP and increasing arterial blood oxygen pressure from the fourth day is significantly different compared with the placebo group (p < 0.05). The use of syrup is associated with a reduction of 3.6 days in the hospitalization period compared with the placebo group. Propolis syrup with H. niger L. has effectiveness in the viral and inflammatory phases on clinical symptoms and blood parameters and arterial blood oxygen levels of patients with COVID-19. Also, it reduces referrals to the intensive care unit and mortality in hospitalized patients with COVID-19. So, this syrup promises to be an effective treatment in the great challenge of COVID-19.

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