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Chitosan for the treatment of inflammation of the oral mucosa: A systematic review.

BACKGROUND: Chitosan is a cheap, accessible, nontoxic, biocompatible, and biodegradable compound. Also, this polysaccharide possesses antibacterial and anti-inflammatory properties. Consequently, a wide range of chitosan applications in the dentistry field has been explored. This work aimed to conduct a systematic review to address the clinical efficacy of chitosan for the treatment of oral mucositis.

MATERIAL AND METHODS: The design of the included studies were observational studies, randomized clinical trials (RCT), and non-randomized clinical trials (non-RCT), whereas, a series of cases, in vivo, and in vitro studies were excluded. The search was performed in PubMed, Web of Science, Scopus, Dentistry and Oral Sciences Source, and ClinicalTrials. Gray literature was searched at Google Scholar. Relevant data from all included studies were recorded. The risk of bias (using RoB 2) and the quality (using Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development, and Evaluation, GRADE) assessments were carried out.

RESULTS: From the 8413 records screened, 5 clinical trials fully met the eligibility criteria, which comprised a total of 192 participants suffering oral lesions and pain related to oral mucositis. 100% of the included studies exhibited a high risk of bias. The quality of the studies was between low and very low.

CONCLUSIONS: The results of the included studies suggest that chitosan can diminish pain and improve the healing of ulcers in oral mucositis. However, there is no conclusive evidence of chitosan as a superior treatment for oral mucositis compared with other current therapies.

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