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Fetal growth assessed via ultrasound in relation to maternal HIV infection status and antiretroviral regimens.

AIDS 2023 November 23
OBJECTIVE: :To evaluate effects of maternal HIV and antiretroviral treatment (ART) on intrauterine fetal growth.

DESIGN: :Prospective cohort studies of HIV and ZIKA infection among women living with HIV (WLHIV) and women not living with HIV (WNLHIV) conducted in Brazil and the US from 2016-2020.

METHODS: :We evaluated fetal growth via repeated ultrasounds and calculated Z-scores for fetal growth measures using Intergrowth-21st standards among women with singleton pregnancies. Adjusted linear mixed models were fit for each fetal growth Z-score by HIV status. Among WLHIV, we compared fetal growth Z-scores by the most common maternal ART regimens, stratified by timing of ART initiation.

RESULTS: :We included 166 WLHIV and 705 WNLHIV; none had Zika infection. Z-scores were similar for WLHIV and WNLHIV for femur length (latest 3rd trimester median = 1.08) and estimated fetal weight (median≈0.60); adjusted mean differences in fetal weight Z-scores by HIV status were <0.1 throughout gestation. Other fetal growth measurements were lower for WLHIV than WNLHIV early in gestation but increased more rapidly over gestation. Among WLHIV not on ART at conception, adjusted mean Z-scores were generally similar across regimens initiated during pregnancy but somewhat lower for atazanavir-based regimens for biparietal diameter compared to efavirenz- or raltegravir-based regimens. Among WLHIV on ART at conception, mean Z-scores were similar across ART regimens.

CONCLUSIONS: :Within our cohorts, fetal growth was lower in WLHIV than WNLHIV early in gestation but similar by the end of gestation, which is reassuring. Among WLHIV, fetal growth measures were generally similar across ART regimens evaluated.

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