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Effect of silver sulfadiazine on mature mixed bacterial biofilms on voice prostheses.

BACKGROUND: Biofilm formation on voice prostheses disrupts the function and limits the lifespan of voice prostheses. There is still no effective clinical strategy for inhibiting or removing these biofilms. Silver sulfadiazine (SSD), as an exogenous antibacterial agent, has been widely used in the prevention and treatment of infection, however, its effect on voice prosthesis biofilms is unknown. The purpose of this study was to explore the effect of SSD on the mature mixed bacterial biofilms present on voice prostheses.

METHODS: Quantitative and qualitative methods, including the plate counting method, real-time fluorescence quantitative PCR, crystal violet staining, the 2,3-bis(2-methoxy-4-nitro-5-sulfophenyl)-2H-tetrazolium-5-carboxanilide) (XTT) reduction assay, scanning electron microscopy, and laser confocal microscopy, were used to determine the effect of SSD on the number of bacterial colonies, biofilm formation ability, metabolic activity, and ultrastructure of biofilms in a mature mixed bacterial (Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus faecalis and Candida albicans) voice prosthesis biofilm model. The results were verified in vitro on mature mixed bacterial voice prosthesis biofilms from patients, and the possible mechanism of action was explored.

RESULTS: Silver sulfadiazine decreased the number of bacterial colonies on mature mixed bacterial voice prosthesis biofilm, significantly inhibited the biofilm formation ability and metabolic activity of mature voice prosthesis biofilms, inhibited the formation of the complex spatial structure of voice prosthesis biofilms, and inhibited the synthesis of polysaccharides and proteins in the biofilm extracellular matrix. The degree of inhibition and removal effect increased with SSD concentration.

CONCLUSIONS: Silver sulfadiazine can effectively inhibit and remove mature mixed bacterial voice prosthesis biofilms and decrease biofilm formation ability and metabolic activity; SSD may exert these effects by inhibiting the synthesis of polysaccharides and proteins among the extracellular polymeric substances of voice prosthesis biofilms.

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