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Sodium bicarbonate Ringer's solution for hemorrhagic shock: A meta-analysis comparing crystalloid solutions.

BACKGROUND: The choice of fluid resuscitation in Traumatic Hemorrhagic shock (THS) remains a critical aspect of patient management. Bicarbonated Ringers solution (BRS) has shown promise due to its composition resembling human Extracellular Fluid and its potential benefits on hemodynamics.

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the efficacy, mortality rates, hemodynamic effects, and adverse outcomes of Sodium Bicarbonate Ringer's Solution in the treatment of hemorrhagic shock, as compared to other relevant interventions.

METHOD: A comprehensive examination of the available literature was performed by conducting systematic searches in prominent databases such as Cochrane, EMBASE, MEDLINE, and PubMed. The process employed predefined criteria to extract relevant data and evaluate the quality of the studies. The outcome measures considered encompassed survival rates, mortality, mean arterial pressure (MAP), heart rate (HR), and adverse events.

RESULT: The meta-analysis of three studies showed that compared to the other crystalloids, the use of BRS had an odds ratio for survival of 1.86 (95% CI: 0.94, 3.71; p = 0.08; I2  = 0%), an odds ratio for total adverse events of 0.14 (95% CI: 0.06, 0.35; p < 0.0001; I2  = 22%), a mean difference in heart rate of -4.49 (95% CI: -7.55, -1.44; p = 0.004; I2  = 13%), and a mean difference in mean arterial pressure of 2.31 (95% CI: -0.85, 5.47; p = 0.15; I2  = 66%).

CONCLUSION: BRS demonstrated a significant reduction in complications, including adult respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), Multiple Organ Dysfunction (MODS), and Total Adverse Effects, when compared to other solutions in the treatment of THS. Additionally, THS patients resuscitated with BRS experienced a notable decrease in heart rate. The findings suggest BRS may contribute to organ stability and potential survival improvement due to its similarity to human Extracellular Fluid and minimal impact on the liver.

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