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The effect of anastrozole therapy on final height and sex hormone levels in pubertal boys receiving growth hormone therapy.

OBJECTIVE: This research aimed to evaluate retrospectively the effect of anastrozole on height gain and sex hormone levels in pubertal boys receiving growth hormone (GH).

MATERIALS AND METHODS: Pubertal boys who received both GH and anastrozole (GH+A) were one-to-one matched with boys who received only GH (GH-Only) for chronological and bone age, pubertal stage and height before the GH initiation, treatment duration and midparental height. Anthropometric measurements throughout treatment and adult heights were compared between the groups. Sex hormone levels were evaluated longitudinally in the GH+A group.

RESULTS: Forty-eight cases (24 in each group) were included. There was no statistical difference in adult height between the GH+A and GH-Only (p = 0.071). However, when the analysis was limited to those receiving anastrozole for at least 2 years, mean adult height was higher in the GH+A than in the GH-Only group (173.1 ± 6.2/169.8 ± 5.6 cm, p = 0.044). Despite similar growth rates between the two groups, bone age advancement was slower in the GH+A than in the GH-Only in a mean anastrozole treatment period of 1.59 years (1.37 ± 0.80/1.81 ± 0.98 years, p = 0.001). The greatest increase for FSH, LH, total and free testosterone and decrease for estradiol levels were observed in the third month after anastrozole was started, albeit remaining within the normal ranges according to the actual pubertal stages.

CONCLUSION: Using anastrozole with GH for at least 2 years decelerates the bone age advancement resulting in adult height gain with no abnormality in sex hormone levels. These results suggest anastrozole can be used as an additional treatment to GH for further height gain in pubertal boys.

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