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Exploring the Enigma of 5-ARIs Resistance in Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia: Paving the Path for Personalized Medicine.

Current Urology Reports 2023 November 22
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Despite the widespread utilization of 5-alpha reductase inhibitors (5-ARIs) for managing benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH), certain BPH patients exhibit unresponsiveness to 5-ARIs therapy. This paper provides a comprehensive overview of the current perspectives on the mechanisms of 5-ARIs resistance in BPH patients and integrates potential biomarkers and underlying therapeutic options for 5-ARIs resistance. These findings may facilitate the development of novel or optimize more effective treatment options, and promote personalized medicine for BPH.

RECENT FINDINGS: The pathways contributing to resistance against 5-ARIs in certain BPH patients encompass epigenetic modifications, shifts in hormone levels, autophagic processes, and variations in androgen receptor structures, and these pathways may ultimately be attributed to inflammation. Promisingly, novel biomarkers, including intravesical prostatic protrusion, inflammatory factors, and single nucleotide polymorphisms, may offer predictive insights into the responsiveness to 5-ARIs therapy, empowering physicians to fine-tune treatment strategies. Additionally, on the horizon, GV1001 and mTOR inhibitors have emerged as potential alternative therapeutic modalities for addressing BPH in the future. After extensive investigation into BPH's pathological processes and molecular landscape, it is now recognized that diverse pathophysiological mechanisms may contribute to different BPH subtypes among individuals. This insight necessitates the adoption of personalized treatment strategies, moving beyond the prevailing one-size-fits-all paradigm centered around 5-ARIs. The imperative for early identification of individuals prone to treatment resistance will drive physicians to proactively stratify risk and adapt treatment tactics in future practice. This personalized medicine approach marks a progression from the current standard treatment model, emerging as the future trajectory in BPH management.

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