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A novel extraperitoneal cesarean section of supravesical approach: Operative techniques.

AIM: We have established a novel extraperitoneal cesarean section technique by supravesical approach. An advantage of this technique over the conventional paravesical approach is that the lower uterine segment is broadly exposed and that all operative procedures can be performed under direct vision. We present the details of this novel technique.

METHODS: The bladder and the peritoneum are exposed by removing the transversalis and extraperitoneal fasciae. Subsequently, a triangular area between the median umbilical ligament, the peritoneum, and the bladder is exposed. The median umbilical ligament is dissected at this site. Bladder dissection from the peritoneum is also initiated from this area and proceeds toward the lower uterine segment.

RESULTS: Operative times for pelvic fascia dissection and bladder removal from the peritoneal surface are currently around 15-25 min. During the process of development of this technique, there have been no bladder injuries in 501 patients that caused urine leakage.

DISCUSSION: The supravesical approach has been considered difficult due to the strong adhesion between the perivesical fascia and the peritoneum at the bladder fundus. In this paper, we show how to safely remove the bladder fundus from the peritoneum. The bladder can then be easily lowered down toward the lower uterine segment. Although this technique allows the lower uterine segment to be broadly exposed and all operative procedures can be performed under direct vision, a disadvantage is the comparatively long time currently required to perform it.

CONCLUSIONS: This technique could be a valuable option for extraperitoneal cesarean section, but disadvantages must also be considered.

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