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The Abeer Children Dental Anxiety Scale (ACDAS) cross-cultural adaptation and validity of self-report measures in the Malaysian Children Context (MY-ACDAS).

BACKGROUND: The Abeer Children Dental Anxiety Scale (ACDAS) source language was developed and validated in an English-speaking country in the UK to measure dental anxiety among children. The ACDAS also included the child's cognitive assessment, as well as feedback from the parent or the legal guardian and a dental health professional (DHP). This is the first study to validate the application of the ACDAS in Malay or Bahasa Melayu for children aged 6-16 years.

AIM: To assess the Malay-translated version of the ACDAS, postadaptation into the local context and validation by the content and construct experts.

DESIGN: The English ACDAS was translated into Malay first through forward translation and then through backward translation. The prefinal translated version of the instrument was designed, with the participation of 61 children and 61 parents or legal guardians. Subsequently, a final cross-cultural adaptation of the instrument was then made for another group of participants and evaluated for validity and test-retest reliability among 144 children and 144 parents or legal guardians participating in the self-report feedback process at the Paediatric Dental Clinic, Faculty of Dentistry, Universiti Malaya, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. The cross-cultural adaptation of the instrument considered translating to Malaysian national language and adapting to its culture.

RESULTS: The Malay-translated ACDAS consisted of 19 items. The translated version of Malaysian-ACDAS (MY-ACDAS) achieved an acceptable agreement between six expert committee members with an internal consistency (Cronbach's alpha value, αconsistency ) of 0.839. The test-retest reliability results of all participants support semantic and conceptual equivalence as an accepted construct validity between the children, parents and DHPs across the multicultural Malaysian population.

CONCLUSION: The MY-ACDAS is a valid and reliable scale for measuring dental anxiety among Malaysian children.

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