Heme oxygenase-1: A potential therapeutic target for improving skeletal muscle atrophy.
Skeletal muscle atrophy is a common muscle disease that is directly caused by an imbalance in protein synthesis and degradation. At the histological level, it is mainly characterized by a reduction in muscle mass and fiber cross-sectional area (CSA). Patients with skeletal muscle atrophy present with reduced motor ability, easy fatigue, and poor life quality. Heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) is an inducible enzyme that catalyzes the degradation of heme and has attracted much attention for its anti-oxidation effects. In addition, there is growing evidence that HO-1 plays an important role in anti-inflammatory, anti-apoptosis, pro-angiogenesis, and maintaining skeletal muscle homeostasis, making it a potential therapeutic target for improving skeletal muscle atrophy. Here, we review the pathogenesis of skeletal muscle atrophy, the biology of HO-1 and its regulation, and the biological function of HO-1 in skeletal muscle homeostasis, with a specific focus on the role of HO-1 in skeletal muscle atrophy, aiming to observe the therapeutic potential of HO-1 for skeletal muscle atrophy.
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