Endogenous Cushing's syndrome results from excess glucocorticoid secretion, which leads to a myriad of clinical manifestations, comorbidities, and increased mortality despite treatment. Molecular mechanisms and genetic alterations associated with different causes of Cushing's syndrome have been described in the last decade. Imaging modalities and biochemical testing have evolved; however, both the diagnosis and management of Cushing's syndrome remain challenging. Surgery is the preferred treatment for all causes, but medical therapy has markedly advanced, with new drug options becoming available. Nevertheless, several comorbidities remain even after patient remission, which can affect quality of life. Accurate and timely diagnosis and treatment are essential for mitigating chronic complications of excess glucocorticoids and improving patient quality of life. In this Seminar, we aim to update several important aspects of diagnosis, complications, and treatment of endogenous Cushing's syndrome of all causes.
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