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Does the ketogenic diet improve neurological disorders by influencing gut microbiota? A systematic review.

Nutrition Journal 2023 November 21
BACKGROUND: The aim of this systematic review is to evaluate the changes in gut microbiota (GM) induced by the Ketogenic Diets (KD) as a potential underlying mechanism in the improvement of neurological diseases.

METHODS: A comprehensive search was conducted on three electronic databases, including PubMed/Medline, Web of Science, and Scopus until December 2022. The inclusion criteria were studies that described any changes in GM after consuming KD in neurological patients. Full text of studies such as clinical trials and cohorts were added. The quality assessment of cohort studies was conducted using the Newcastle-Ottawa Quality Assessment Scale and for the clinical trials using the Cochrane Collaboration tool. The search, screening, and data extraction were performed by two researchers independently.

RESULTS: Thirteen studies examining the effects of the KD on the GM in neurological patients were included. Studies have shown that KD improves clinical outcomes by reducing disease severity and recurrence rates. An increase in Proteobacteria phylum, Escherichia, Bacteroides, Prevotella, Faecalibacterium, Lachnospira, Agaricus, and Mrakia genera and a reduction in Firmicutes, and Actinobacteria phyla, Eubacterium, Cronobacter, Saccharomyces, Claviceps, Akkermansia and Dialister genera were reported after KD. Studies showed a reduction in concentrations of fecal short-chain fatty acids and branched-chain fatty acids and an increase in beta Hydroxybutyrate, trimethylamine N-oxide, and N-acetylserotonin levels after KD.

CONCLUSION: The KD prescribed in neurological patients has effectively altered the GM composition and GM-derived metabolites.

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