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Analysis of the effect of CPAP on hemodynamics using clinical data and a theoretical model: CPAP therapy decreases cardiac output mechanically but increases it via afterload reduction.

Sleep Medicine 2023 November 11
BACKGROUND: Noninvasive positive pressure ventilation (NIPPV) has been established as an effective treatment for heart failure. Positive airway pressure such as continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) increases cardiac output (CO) in some patients but decreases it in others. However, the mechanism behind such unpredictable responses remains undetermined.

METHODS AND RESULTS: We measured hemodynamic parameters of 38 cases using Swan-Ganz catheter before and after CPAP in chronic heart failure status. In those whose CO increased by CPAP, pulmonary vascular resistance (PVR) was significantly decreased and SpO2 significantly increased, but the other parameters were not changed. On the other hand, PVR was not changed, but systemic vascular resistance (SVR) was increased in those whose CO decreased by CPAP. To explain this phenomenon, we simulated the cardiovascular system using a cardiac model of time-varying elastance. In this model, it was indicated that CPAP decreases CO irrespective of cardiac function or filling status under constant PVR condition. However, when reduction of PVR by CPAP was taken into account, an increase in CO was expected especially in the hypervolemic and low right ventricle (RV) systolic function cases.

CONCLUSIONS: CPAP would increase CO only where PVR can be reduced by CPAP therapy, especially in the case with hypervolemia and/or low RV systolic function. Understanding the underlying mechanism should help identify the patients for whom NIPPV would be effective.

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