Therapeutic apheresis (TA) plays a significant role in various aspects of renal transplantation. It has been a necessary preconditioning component in ABO incompatible kidney transplants and an important modality in the removal of anti-human leukocyte antigen (HLA) antibodies both in the context of desensitization protocols that have been developed to allow highly sensitized kidney transplant candidates to be successfully transplanted and as treatment of antibody mediated rejection episodes post transplantation. In addition, TA has been used with various results for the management of recurrent focal segmental glomerulosclerosis. The purpose of this review is to examine the evidence supporting the application of TA as an adjunctive therapeutic option to immunosuppressive agents in protocols both before and after kidney transplantation.
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