Urinary tract infections: a review of the current diagnostics landscape.
Urinary tract infections are the most common bacterial infections worldwide. Infections can range from mild, recurrent (rUTI) to complicated (cUTIs), and are predominantly caused by uropathogenic Escherichia coli (UPEC). Antibiotic therapy is important to tackle infection; however, with the continued emergence of antibiotic resistance there is an urgent need to monitor the use of effective antibiotics through better stewardship measures. Currently, clinical diagnosis of UTIs relies on empiric methods supported by laboratory testing including cellular analysis (of both human and bacterial cells), dipstick analysis and phenotypic culture. Therefore, development of novel, sensitive and specific diagnostics is an important means to rationalise antibiotic therapy in patients. This review discusses the current diagnostic landscape and highlights promising novel diagnostic technologies in development that could aid in treatment and management of antibiotic-resistant UTIs.
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