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Incidental Dysplasia During Total Proctocolectomy With Ileoanal Pouch: Is It Associated With Worse Outcomes?

BACKGROUND: Patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) are at increased risk of colorectal cancer. In cases of invisible or nonendoscopically resectable dysplasia found at colonoscopy, total proctocolectomy with ileal pouch anal anastomosis can be offered with good long-term outcomes; however, little is known regarding cancer-related outcomes when dysplasia is found incidentally after surgery on final pathology.

METHODS: Using our prospectively collected pouch registry, we identified patients who had preoperative colonic dysplasia or dysplasia found only after colectomy. Patients with cancer preoperatively or after colectomy were excluded. Included patients were divided into 3 groups: PRE (+preoperative biopsy, negative final pathology), BOTH (+preoperative biopsy and final pathology), and POST (negative preoperative biopsy, +final pathology). Long-term outcomes in the 3 groups were assessed.

RESULTS: In total, 517 patients were included: PRE = 125, BOTH = 254, POST = 137. After a median follow-up of 12 years (IQR 3-21), there were no differences in overall, disease-free, or pouch survival between groups. Cancer/dysplasia developed in 11 patients: 3 (2%) in the PRE, 5 (2%) in the BOTH, and 3 (2%) in the POST group. Only 1 cancer-related death occurred in the entire cohort (PRE group). Disease-free survival at 10 years was 98% for all groups (P = .97). Pouch survival at 10 years was 96% for PRE, 99% for BOTH, and 97% for POST (P = .24).

CONCLUSIONS: The incidental finding of dysplasia on final pathology after proctocolectomy was not associated with worsened outcomes compared with preoperatively diagnosed dysplasia.

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