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Jia-Wei-Kai-Xin-San Treatment Alleviated Mild Cognitive Impairment through Anti-Inflammatory and Antiapoptotic Mechanisms in SAMP8 Mice.

BACKGROUND: Alleviating mild cognitive impairment (MCI) is crucial to delay the progression of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Jia-Wei-Kai-Xin-San (JWKXS) is applied for treating AD with MCI. However, the mechanism of JWKXS in the treatment of MCI is unclear. Thus, this study aimed to investigate the effect and mechanism of JWKXS in SAMP8 mice models of MCI.

METHODS: MCI models were established to examine learning and memory ability and explore the pathomechanisms in brain of SAMP8 mice at 4, 6, and 8 months. The mice were treated for 8 weeks and the effects of JWKXS on MCI were characterized through Morris water maze and HE/Nissl's/immunohistochemical staining. Its mechanism was predicted by the combination of UPLC-Q-TOF/MS and system pharmacology analysis, further verified with SAMP8 mice, BV2 microglial cells, and PC12 cells.

RESULTS: It was found that 4-month-old SAMP8 mice exhibited MCI. Two months of JWKXS treatment improved the learning and memory ability, alleviated the hippocampal tissue and neuron damage. Through network pharmacology, four key signaling pathways were found to be involved in treatment of MCI by JWKXS, including TLR4/NF- κ B pathway, NLRP3 inflammasome activation, and intrinsic and extrinsic apoptosis. In vitro and in vivo experiments demonstrated that JWKXS attenuated neuroinflammation by inhibiting microglia activation, suppressing TLR4/NF- κ B and NLRP3 inflammasome pathways, and blocking the extrinsic and intrinsic apoptotic pathways leading to neuronal apoptosis suppression in the hippocampus.

CONCLUSION: JWKXS treatment improved the learning and memory ability and conferred neuroprotective effects against MCI by inducing anti-inflammation and antiapoptosis. Limitations . The small sample size and short duration of the intervention limit in-depth investigation of the mechanisms. Future Prospects . This provides a direction for further clarification of the anti-AD mechanism, and provides certain data support for the formulation to move toward clinical practice.

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