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Evidence-Based Guideline on the Prevention and Management of Perioperative Pain for Breast Cancer Peoples in a Low-Resource Setting: A Systematic Review Article.

BACKGROUND: Breast surgery for breast cancer is associated with significant acute and persistent postoperative pain. Surgery is the primary type of treatment, but up to 60% of breast cancer patients experience persistent pain after surgery, and 40% of them develop acute postmastectomy pain syndrome. Preoperative stress, involvement of lymph nodes while dissecting, and the postoperative psychological state of the patients play vital roles in managing the postoperative pain of the patients. The objective of this study is to develop evidence-based guideline on the prevention and management of perioperative pain for breast cancer surgical patients.

METHODS: An exhaustive literature search was made from PubMed, Cochrane Review, PubMed, Google Scholar, Hinari, and CINAHIL databases that are published from 2012 to 2022 by setting the inclusion and exclusion criteria. After data extraction, filtering was made based on the methodological quality, population data, interventions, and outcome of interest. Finally, one guideline, two meta-analyses, ten systematic reviews, 25 randomized clinical trials and ten observational studies are included in this review, and a conclusion was made based on their level of evidence and grade of recommendation.

RESULTS: A total of 38 studies were considered in this evaluation. The development of this guideline was based on different studies performed on the diagnosis, risk stratification and risk reduction, prevention of postoperative pain, and treatments of postoperative pain.

CONCLUSION: The management of postoperative pain can be categorized as risk assessment, minimizing risk, early diagnosis, and treatment. Early diagnosis is the mainstay to identify and initiate treatment. The perioperative use of a nonpharmacological approach (including preoperative positive inspirational words and positive expectation) as an adjunct to the intraoperative regional anesthetic technique with general anesthesia with proper dosage of the standard pharmacological multimodal regimens is the first-line treatment. For postoperative analgesia, an extended form of intraoperative regional technique, nonpharmacologic technique, and NSAIDs can be used with the opioid-sparing anesthesia technique.

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