Role of brain renin-angiotensin system in depression: A new perspective.
Depression is a mood disorder characterized by abnormal thoughts. The pathophysiology of depression is related to the deficiency of serotonin (5HT), which is derived from tryptophan (Trp). Mitochondrial dysfunction, oxidative stress, and neuroinflammation are involved in the pathogenesis of depression. Notably, the renin-angiotensin system (RAS) is involved in the pathogenesis of depression, and different findings revealed that angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEIs) and angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs) may be effective in depression. However, the underlying mechanism for the role of dysregulated brain RAS-induced depression remains speculative. Therefore, this review aimed to revise the conceivable role of ACEIs and ARBs and how these agents ameliorate the pathophysiology of depression. Dysregulation of brain RAS triggers the development and progression of depression through the reduction of brain 5HT and expression of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and the induction of mitochondrial dysfunction, oxidative stress, and neuroinflammation. Therefore, inhibition of central classical RAS by ARBS and ACEIs and activation of non-classical RAS prevent the development of depression by regulating 5HT, BDNF, mitochondrial dysfunction, oxidative stress, and neuroinflammation.
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