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Effect of Proinflammatory S100A9 Protein on Migration and Proliferation of Microglial Cells.

Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a multifactorial disease affecting aging population worldwide. Neuroinflammation became a focus of research as one of the major pathologic processes relating to the disease onset and progression. Proinflammatory S100A9 is the central culprit in the amyloid-neuroinflammatory cascade implicated in AD and other neurodegenerative diseases. We studied the effect of S100A9 on microglial BV-2 cell proliferation and migration. The responses of BV-2 cells to S100A9 stimulation were monitored in real-time using live cell microscopy, transcriptome sequencing, immunofluorescence staining, western blot analysis, and ELISA. We observed that a low dose of S100A9 promotes migration and proliferation of BV-2 cells. However, acute inflammatory condition (i.e., high S100A9 doses) causes diminished cell viability; it is uncovered that S100A9 activates TLR-4 and TLR-7 signaling pathways, leading to TNF-α and IL-6 expression, which affect BV-2 cell migration and proliferation in a concentration-dependent manner. Interestingly, the effects of S100A9 are not only inhibited by TNF-α and IL-6 antibodies. The addition of amyloid-β (Aβ) 1-40 peptide resumes the capacities of BV-2 cells to the level of low S100A9 concentrations. Based on these results, we conclude that in contrast to the beneficial effects of low S100A9 dose, high S100A9 concentration leads to impaired mobility and proliferation of immune cells, reflecting neurotoxicity at acute inflammatory conditions. However, the formation of Aβ plaques may be a natural mechanism that rescues cells from the proinflammatory and cytotoxic effects of S100A9, especially considering that inflammation is one of the primary causes of AD.

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