Recent advances in oral delivery systems of resveratrol: foreseeing their use in functional foods.
Herein, we review the current state-of-the-art on the use of micro- and nano-delivery systems, a possible solution to some of the drawbacks associated with the incorporation of resveratrol in foods. Specifically, we present an overview of a wide range of micro-nanostructures, namely, lipidic and polymeric, used for the delivery of resveratrol. Also, the gastrointestinal fate of resveratrol-loaded micro-nanostructures, as a critical parameter for their use as functional food, is explored in terms of stability, bioaccessibility, and bioavailability. Different micro-nanostructures are of interest for the development of functional foods given that they can provide different advantages and properties to these foods and even be tailor-made to address specific issues ( e.g. , controlled or targeted release). Therefore, we discuss a wide range of micro-nanostructures, namely, lipidic and polymeric, used to deliver resveratrol and aimed at the development of functional foods. It has been reported that the use of some production methodologies can be of greater interest than others, for example, emulsification, solvent displacement and electrohydrodynamic processing (EHDP) enable a greater increase in bioaccessibility. Additionally, the use of coatings facilitates further improvements in bioaccessibility, which is likely due to the increased gastric stability of the coated micro-nanostructures. Other properties, such as mucoadhesion, can also help improve bioaccessibility due to the increase in gut retention time. Additionally, cytotoxicity ( e.g. , biocompatibility, antioxidant, and anti-inflammatory) and possible sensorial impact of resveratrol-loaded micro- and nano-systems in foods are highlighted.
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