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Influence of Inflammatory Bowel Disease on Patients Undergoing Primary Total Joint Arthroplasty: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis of Cohort Studies.

BACKGROUND: Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is recognized as a global disease. Although IBD is commonly diagnosed in the young male population, it also occurs in patients aged >60 years. With the advent of an aging society, it is expected that an increasing number of patients with IBD will undergo total joint arthroplasty (TJA).

PURPOSE: To assess the impact of IBD on the risk of complications and revision as well as the length of stay (LOS) and treatment costs after TJA.

STUDY DESIGN: Systematic review; Level of evidence, 4.

METHODS: Utilizing PRISMA (Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses) guidelines, articles were searched in the PubMed/MEDLINE, Embase, and Cochrane Library databases from the date of inception to August 31, 2022, using the following search terms: (1) "Inflammatory Bowel Diseases"[MeSH] and (2) "Arthroplasty, Replacement"[MeSH]. The study quality was scored according to the Newcastle-Ottawa Scale. A fixed-effects or random-effects model was used to calculate odds ratios or mean differences with 95% confidence intervals.

RESULTS: Of 232 studies initially retrieved, 8 retrospective cohort studies consisting of 33,758 patients with IBD and 386,238 patients without IBD were included. Patients with IBD had a higher incidence of complications ( P < .05), readmission and revision ( P < .05), experienced a longer LOS ( P < .01), and paid higher treatment costs after TJA compared with patients without IBD .

CONCLUSION: The results of our review demonstrated that IBD increased the risk of postoperative complications, prolonged the LOS, and increased treatment costs.

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