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Meningioma transformation to glioblastoma following stereotactic radiosurgery: A case report and review of the literature.

BACKGROUND: Meningiomas are the most common primary intracranial tumor with increasing incidence. Stereotactic Radiosurgery Gamma Knife (SRS-GK) is a commonly used modality for neoadjuvant and adjuvant treatment of these tumors and is often necessary for long-term disease control, particularly for the World Health Organization grade II/III meningiomas. While there is strong evidence to support the use of SRS-GK for meningioma, there exists a risk of secondary malignancy that is not well understood. We report a case of glioblastoma (GBM) that arose near the bed of a meningioma previously treated with SRS-GK and discuss other cases of GBM that emerged at a site of meningioma reported in the literature.

CASE DESCRIPTION: A 79-year-old female with a history of a blood-clotting disorder presented to the hospital with sudden facial sensory disturbances. On magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), a homogeneously enhancing lesion was observed in the right temporal lobe, consistent with a meningioma. Following 2 years of surveillance, the patient underwent SRS-GK for enlargement of the lesion. The patient later presented with headache and gait instability 12 years following SRS-GK. MRI revealed a large ring-enhancing lesion with surrounding edema histologically confirmed to be a GBM. At 9 months following initial tumor resection and a combination of radiotherapy and temozolomide, the patient was neurologically intact.

CONCLUSION: There is a very small risk of meningioma to GBM conversion following SRS. Although SRS-GK poses a risk of secondary malignancy, there are some reported cases that underwent malignant transformation without SRS-GK. This suggests that SRS-GK is not the only factor in transformation and is a reasonable therapeutic modality to consider utilizing. Patients and their families should be appropriately counseled on the potential risks of radiation therapy, even for benign lesions like a meningioma.

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