The cell stress and immunity cycle in cancer: Toward next generation of cancer immunotherapy.
The cellular stress and immunity cycle is a cornerstone of organismal homeostasis. Stress activates intracellular and intercellular communications within a tissue or organ to initiate adaptive responses aiming to resolve the origin of this stress. If such local measures are unable to ameliorate this stress, then intercellular communications expand toward immune activation with the aim of recruiting immune cells to effectively resolve the situation while executing tissue repair to ameliorate any damage and facilitate homeostasis. This cellular stress-immunity cycle is severely dysregulated in diseased contexts like cancer. On one hand, cancer cells dysregulate the normal cellular stress responses to reorient them toward upholding growth at all costs, even at the expense of organismal integrity and homeostasis. On the other hand, the tumors severely dysregulate or inhibit various components of organismal immunity, for example, by facilitating immunosuppressive tumor landscape, lowering antigenicity, and increasing T-cell dysfunction. In this review we aim to comprehensively discuss the basis behind tumoral dysregulation of cellular stress-immunity cycle. We also offer insights into current understanding of the regulators and deregulators of this cycle and how they can be targeted for conceptualizing successful cancer immunotherapy regimen.
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