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Nutraceutical formulation for immune system modulation: Active constituents, in vitro antibacterial and immunomodulatory activity, and metabolomics analysis.

There is a large demand for nutraceuticals in the market and studies related to their action are needed. In this paper, the antimicrobial activity and the immunomodulatory effect of a nutraceutical formulation containing 14.39% of ascorbic acid, 7.17% of coenzyme Q10, 1.33% of Echinacea polyphenols, 0.99% of pine flavan-3-ols, 0.69% of resveratrol and 0.023% of Echinacea alkylamides were studied using in vitro assays and cell-based metabolomics. Chromatographic analysis allowed us to study the nutraceutical composition. The antibacterial activity was evaluated on S. aureus, K. pneumoniae, P. aeruginosa, E. coli, H. influenzae, S. pyogenes, S. pneumoniae and M. catarrhalis. The immunomodulatory activity was assessed on human macrophages and dendritic cells. The production of IL-1β, IL-12p70, IL-10 and IL-8 was evaluated on culture medium by ELISA and the activation/maturation of dendritic cells with cytofluorimetric analysis. Treated and untreated macrophages and dendritic cell lysates were analysed by liquid chromatography coupled with high-resolution mass spectrometry, and results were compared using multivariate data analysis to identify biological markers related to the treatment with the food supplement. The food supplement decreased K. pneumoniae, P. aeruginosa, E. coli, Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and M. catharralis growth, reduced the inflammatory response in macrophages exposed to lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and modulated the activation and maturation of the dendritic cells. Oxidized phospholipids were identified as the main biological markers of treated cell lysates, compared with controls.

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