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Miracles of science: Birth after uterus transplantation.

AIM: The concept of regaining childbearing ability via uterus transplantation (UTx) motivates many infertile women to pursue giving birth to their own children. This article provides insight into maternal and neonatal outcomes of the procedure globally and facilitates quality of care in related medical fields.

METHODS: The authors searched ISI Web of Science, MEDLINE, non-PubMed-indexed journals, and common search engines to identify peer-review publications and unpublished sources in scientific reference databases.

RESULTS: The feasibility of the procedure has been proven with 46 healthy children in 88 procedures so far. Success relies upon dedicated teamwork involving transplantation surgery, obstetrics and reproductive medicine, neonatology, pediatrics, psychology, and bioethics. However, challenges exist owing to donor, recipient, and fetus. Fetal growth in genetically foreign uterine allograft with altered feto-maternal interface and vascular anatomy, immunosuppressive exposure, lack of graft innervation leading to "unable-to-feel" uterine contractions and conception via assisted reproductive technology create notable risks during pregnancy. Significant portion of women are complicated by at least one or more obstetric problems. Preeclampsia, gestational hypertension and diabetes mellitus, elevated kidney indices, and preterm delivery are common complications.

CONCLUSIONS: UTx has short- and long-term satisfying outcome. Advancements in the post-transplant management would undoubtedly lead this experimental procedure into mainstream clinical practice in the near future. However, both women and children of UTx need special consideration due to prematurity-related neonatal problems and the long-term effects of transplant pregnancy. Notable health risks for the recipient and fetus should be discussed with potential candidates for UTx.

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