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Cardiovascular disease prevention in women - the current state in 2023.

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Cardiovascular disease (CVD) remains a leading cause of morbidity and mortality for women globally. The purpose of this review is to provide an updated overview of CVD prevention in women, focusing on what is currently understood about female-specific or female-predominant CVD risk factors and the importance of tailored strategies for risk assessment and medical interventions.

RECENT FINDINGS: Recent studies have demonstrated the need to account for risk factors specific to women in current risk assessment models for CVD, including early menarche, polycystic ovary syndrome, adverse pregnancy outcomes, early menopause, and chronic inflammatory conditions. Incorporation of these findings has led to advancements in sex-specific guidelines, diagnostic tools, and treatment approaches that have led to improvement in the precision of CVD prevention strategies. At-risk women benefit similarly to lipid-lowering and other preventive therapies as men but are less likely to be treated.

SUMMARY: CVD prevention in women has made substantial progress over the past decade, marked by increasing awareness among clinicians, improved understanding of sex-specific risk-enhancing factors, and incorporation of sex-specific guidelines for management. However, there remain knowledge gaps that warrant ongoing efforts to optimize CVD prevention strategies in women, which will ultimately lead to improved cardiovascular health outcomes.

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