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Drug resistance and the genotypic characteristics of rpoB and katG in rifampicin- and/or isoniazid-resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolates in central Vietnam.

BACKGROUND: Tuberculosis (TB) and drug-resistant TB (DR-TB) are national health burdens in Vietnam. In this study, we investigated the prevalence of rifampicin (RIF) and/or isoniazid (isonicotinic acid hydrazide, INH) resistance in patients with suspected TB, and applied appropriate techniques to help rapidly target DR-TB.

METHODS: In total, 1,547 clinical specimens were collected and cultured using the BACTEC MGIT system (Becton Dickinson and Co.). A resazurin microtiter assay (REMA) was used to determine the proportions of RIF and/or INH resistance. A real-time polymerase chain reaction panel with TaqMan probes was employed to identify the mutations of rpoB and katG associated with DR-TB in clinical isolates. Genotyping of the identified mutations was also performed.

RESULTS: A total of 468 Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolates were identified using the REMA. Of these isolates, 106 (22.6%) were found to be resistant to 1 or both antibiotics. Of the resistant isolates, 74 isolates (69.8%) were resistant to isoniazid (INH) only, while 1 isolate (0.94%) was resistant to RIF only. Notably, 31 isolates (29.24%) were resistant to both antibiotics. Of the 41 phenotypically INH-resistant isolates, 19 (46.3%) had the Ser315Thr mutation. There were 8 different rpoB mutations in 22 (68.8%) of the RIF-resistant isolates. The most frequently detected mutations were at codons 531 (37.5%), 526 (18.8%), and 516 (6.3%).

CONCLUSION: To help prevent new cases of DR-TB in Vietnam, it is crucial to gain a comprehensive understanding of the genotypic DR-TB isolates.

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