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Defining optimal blood pressure control for pre-transplant end-stage renal disease patients: scoping review.

BACKGROUND: Strict blood pressure control is essential to prevent cardiovascular disease and is associated with decreased mortality. However, in patients with end-stage renal disease awaiting renal transplantation, the level of optimal blood pressure control is not yet defined.

METHODS: Following the PRISMA Extension for Scoping Reviews, we searched MEDLINE and EMBASE for all peer-reviewed articles using keywords including 'end-stage renal disease', 'blood pressure', and 'pre-transplant' from their inception to 7 August 2022.

RESULTS: Seven observational studies, including one population-based study, were included in the review. Most studies investigated factors associated with post-transplant graft failure or mortality. There was considerable heterogeneity in defining optimal pre-transplant blood pressure measurement frequency among studies (average of three measurements vs. single measurement). One study suggested that low pre-transplant diastolic blood pressure (<50 mmHg) was associated with lower odds of delayed graft failure and mortality. Two studies noted that pre-transplant hypertension, or clinical criteria of hypertension that were present prior to transplant, was associated with post-transplant adverse outcomes. In contrast, one study noted that pre-transplant sustained hypotension with mean blood pressure <80 mmHg, was associated with a higher frequency of delayed graft failure.

CONCLUSION: This systematic review summarizes the current evidence regarding the relationship between pre-transplant blood pressure control and post-transplant outcomes in end-stage renal disease patients. While the results from the included studies are mixed, more stringent blood pressure control than currently practiced may be beneficial to decrease graft failure and mortality in this patient population.

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