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Application of microRNAs in the diagnosis and monitoring of pediatric germ cell tumors: Kazakh experience.

GCT is characterized by specific biochemical markers expression, such as human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) and alpha-fetoprotein (AFP), which are the main tools in the diagnosis and monitoring of GCT treatment. They are expressed in 15-20% of cases of seminoma and in 60-80% of cases of non-seminoma. MicroRNA profiling allows to identify a number of microRNAs that are superior to classical serum tumor markers in the diagnosis of primary tumors, as well as in subsequent monitoring and prediction of recurrence. We analyzed the expression of 9 microRNAs (microRNA clusters 302/367 and 371-373, microRNA375) in the blood serum of 20 children with extracranial GCT at different stages of therapy and showed their usefulness and informativeness in early detection of events. Taking into consideration the high sensitivity and specificity, serum microRNAs 367,371,372,373,302d are of great interest for clinical use in malignant GCT. Significant expression of miR 375-3p was not detected either in malignant GCT or in teratomas.

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