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Challenges in Coagulation Management in Neurosurgical Diseases: A Scoping Review, Development, and Implementation of Coagulation Management Strategies.

Bleeding and thromboembolic (TE) complications in neurosurgical diseases have a detrimental impact on clinical outcomes. The aim of this study is to provide a scoping review of the available literature and address challenges and knowledge gaps in the management of coagulation disorders in neurosurgical diseases. Additionally, we introduce a novel research project that seeks to reduce coagulation disorder-associated complications in neurosurgical patients. The risk of bleeding after elective craniotomy is about 3%, and higher (14-33%) in other indications, such as trauma and intracranial hemorrhage. In spinal surgery, the incidence of postoperative clinically relevant bleeding is approximately 0.5-1.4%. The risk for TE complications in intracranial pathologies ranges from 3 to 20%, whereas in spinal surgery it is around 7%. These findings highlight a relevant problem in neurosurgical diseases and current guidelines do not adequately address individual circumstances. The multidisciplinary COagulation MAnagement in Neurosurgical Diseases (COMAND) project has been developed to tackle this challenge by devising an individualized coagulation management strategy for patients with neurosurgical diseases. Importantly, this project is designed to ensure that these management strategies can be readily implemented into healthcare practices of different types and with sustainable integration.

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