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Relationship of serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D, obesity with new-onset obstructive sleep apnea.

OBJECTIVE: The prospective association between vitamin D and obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) remains uncertain. We aimed to assess the association between serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D), a major circulating form of vitamin D, and new-onset OSA, and examine the modifying effect of obesity.

MATERIALS AND METHODS: This prospective cohort study included 444,975 participants from UK Biobank without prior OSA. The primary outcome was new-onset OSA.

RESULTS: During a median follow-up duration of 12.0 years, 6051 (1.4%) participants occurred new-onset OSA. Overall, there was an inverse relation of serum 25(OH)D concentrations with the risk of new-onset OSA (per SD increment, HR, 0.92; 95%CI: 0.89-0.95). In the analysis of the interactions of serum 25(OH)D with the combination of BMI (<25, 25- < 30, and ≥30 kg/m2 ) and waist circumference (WC) (<90 and ≥90 cm) categories on new-onset OSA, the significantly inverse association of serum 25(OH)D and new-onset OSA was mainly found in participants with both BMI ≥ 25 kg/m2 and WC ≥ 90 cm (BMI 25-30 kg/m2 and WC ≥ 90 cm: per SD increment, HR, 0.90; 95%CI: 0.84-0.95; BMI ≥ 30 kg/m2 and WC ≥ 90 cm: per SD increment, HR, 0.85; 95%CI: 0.81-0.88), but not in other four groups with BMI < 25 kg/m2 or WC < 90 cm (P -interaction = 0.004).

CONCLUSIONS: There was an inverse relation of serum 25(OH)D with the risk of new-onset OSA in participants with both BMI ≥ 25 kg/m2 and WC ≥ 90 cm. Our findings suggest the importance of maintaining a higher serum 25(OH)D concentration for primary prevention of OSA in a population with obesity.

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