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Cutaneous Manifestations of Rheumatoid Arthritis: Diagnosis and Treatment.

Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a chronic, systemic autoimmune disorder characterized by inflammatory arthritis and periarticular structural damage. Available evidence suggests that RA results from complex interactions between genetic susceptibility (e.g., HLA-DRB1), environmental factors (e.g., smoking), and immune dysregulation. Alongside joint-related symptoms, individuals with RA may also experience a wide array of skin issues, including the development of nodules, neutrophilic dermatoses, vasculitis, and vasculopathy. Treatment strategies for these manifestations vary but routinely involve corticosteroids, disease-modifying anti-rheumatic drugs, and biologics, with individualized approaches guided by disease severity. In this review, we provide comprehensive insights into the skin-related issues associated with RA, outlining their clinical characteristics and histopathological findings. Our aim is to facilitate early diagnosis and personalized treatment to improve the quality of life of affected individuals.

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