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Mitochondrial metabolism in alveolar macrophages of patients infected with HIV, tuberculosis (TB) and HIV/TB.

Tuberculosis (TB) is one of the most common opportunistic infections and is a leading cause of mortality in patients with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). HIV infection causes serious defects in the host immune system and increases the risk of active tuberculosis (TB). TB infection promotes HIV replication and aggravates host damage in patients with HIV/AIDS. Alveolar macrophages (AMs) are essential immune cells during TB and HIV infections. AMs undergo a shift in mitochondrial metabolism during TB or HIV infection, that is, metabolic reprogramming, allowing them to act in the form of classical activated macrophages (M1) and alternative activated macrophages (M2) at different stages of infection. We reviewed the alterations in the mitochondrial energy metabolism of AMs in patients with HIV, TB, and HIV/TB to provide ideas for further research on the role of metabolic reprogramming by AMs in the pathogeneses of HIV, TB, and HIV/TB co-infection.

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