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Hederagenin Upregulates PTPN1 Expression in Aβ-Stimulated Neuronal Cells, Exerting Anti-Oxidative Stress and Anti-Apoptotic Activities.

Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a prevalently neurodegenerative disease characterized by neuronal damage which is associated with amyloid-β (Aβ) accumulation. Hederagenin is a triterpenoid saponin, exerting anti-apoptotic, anti-oxidative, anti-inflammatory, anti-tumoral, and neuroprotective activities. However, its role in AD progression is still obscure. The aim of this study was to explore the influences of hederagenin on Aβ-caused neuronal injury in vitro. Neuronal cells were treated with Aβ25-35 (Aβ) to establish a cellular model of AD. Cell viability was assessed using cell counting kit-8 (CCK-8). Oxidative stress was evaluated by detecting reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity. Apoptosis was investigated using TUNEL staining and caspase-3 activity assays. Protein tyrosine phosphatase nonreceptor type 1 (PTPN1) was screened by bioinformatics analysis. Protein levels of PTPN1 and protein kinase B (Akt) were measured by western blotting. Hederagenin (2.5, 5, and 10 μM) alone did not affect viability of neuronal cells, but relieved Aβ-induced viability reduction. Hederagenin mitigated Aβ-induced increase in ROS accumulation and decrease in SOD activity. Hederagenin attenuated Aβ-induced increase in apoptotic rate and caspase-3 activity. PTPN1 was screened as a target of hederagenin against AD by bioinformatics analysis. Hederagenin treatment resisted Aβ-induced decrease in PTPN1 mRNA and protein levels in neuronal cells. PTPN1 silencing attenuated the suppressive functions of hederagenin in Aβ-stimulated oxidative stress and apoptosis. Hederagenin mitigated Aβ-induced Akt signaling inactivation by upregulating PTPN1 expression. In conclusion, hederagenin attenuates oxidative stress and apoptosis in neuronal cells stimulated with Aβ by promoting PTPN1/Akt signaling activation.

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