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Hospital-Acquired Venous Thromboembolism and Invasive Mechanical Ventilation: A Report From the Children's Hospital Acquired Thrombosis Consortium.

OBJECTIVES: To determine if the duration of invasive mechanical ventilation (IMV) was associated with hospital-acquired venous thromboembolism (HA-VTE) among critically ill children.

DESIGN: A multicenter, matched case-control study as a secondary analysis of Children's Hospital Acquired Thrombosis (CHAT) Consortium registry.

SETTING: PICUs within U.S. CHAT Consortium participating centers.

PATIENTS: Children younger than 21 years old admitted to a PICU receiving IMV for greater than or equal to 1 day duration from January 2012 to March 2022 were included for study. Cases with HA-VTE were matched 1:2 to controls without HA-VTE by patient age groups: younger than 1, 1-12, and older than 12 years.

INTERVENTIONS: None.

MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: The primary outcome was IMV duration in days. Descriptive data included demographics, anthropometrics, HA-VTE characteristics (i.e., type, location, and timing), central venous catheterization data, thromboprophylaxis practices, and Braden Q mobility scores. Descriptive, comparative, and associative (multivariate conditional logistic regression for HA-VTE) statistics were employed. A total of 152 cases were matched to 304 controls. Cases with HA-VTE were diagnosed at a median of 7 days (interquartile range [IQR], 3-16 d) after IMV. The HA-VTE were limb deep venous thromboses in 130 of 152 (85.5%) and frequently central venous catheterization-related (111/152, 73%). Cases with HA-VTE experienced a longer length of stay (median, 34 d [IQR, 18-62 d] vs. 11.5 d [IQR, 6-21 d]; p < 0.001) and IMV duration (median, 7 d [IQR, 4-15 d] vs. 4 d [IQR, 1-7 d]; p < 0.001) as compared with controls. In a multivariate logistic model, greater IMV duration (adjusted odds ratio, 1.09; 95% CI, 1.01-1.17; p = 0.023) was independently associated with HA-VTE.

CONCLUSIONS: Among critically ill children undergoing IMV, HA-VTE was associated with greater IMV duration. If prospectively validated, IMV duration should be included as part of prothrombotic risk stratification and future pediatric thromboprophylaxis trials.

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