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Does BRAF mutation status and related clinicopathological factors affect the recurrence rate of ameloblastoma? A systematic review, meta-analysis and metaregression.

OBJECTIVES: This review aims to analyse the recurrence rate in BRAFv600e+ and BRAFv600e- ameloblastomas and explore its association with clinicopathological variables.

METHODS: A comprehensive search was conducted using databases including PubMed, Embase, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, Clinicaltrials.gov, Google Scholar and grey literature, without any limitation on start date or language up to 20 June 2023. A random effect meta-analysis was conducted and Metaregression analyses were performed based on available clinicopathological factors.

RESULTS: Fifteen studies met the criteria for meta-analysis of outcomes. There was no significant difference in overall recurrence rates between the two groups (risk difference = 0.001, p-value = 0.987). Increasing male:female ratio in the BRAFv600e+ group was associated with a lower reported recurrence, suggesting a higher recurrence rate in females. The odds of having mandibular lesion were four times higher in BRAFv600e+ cases compared to BRAFv600e- cases (confidence interval: 2.121-7.870, p < 0.001, I2  = 28.37%).

CONCLUSION: Within the BRAFv600e+ group, females showed a higher reported recurrence rate. This specific clinical group may benefit from BRAFv600e mutation investigation and potential upscaled surgical treatment and additional BRAF inhibitor therapy, which needs validation in future studies.

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