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Brown adipose tissue-derived metabolites and their role in regulating metabolism.

The discovery and rejuvenation of metabolically active brown adipose tissue (BAT) in adult humans have offered a new approach to treating obesity and metabolic diseases. Beyond an accomplished role in adaptive thermogenesis, BAT secretes signaling molecules known as "batokines", which are instrumental in regulating whole-body metabolism via autocrine, paracrine, and endocrine action. In addition to the intrinsic BAT metabolite-oxidizing activity, the endocrine functions of these molecules may help to explain the association between BAT activity and a healthy systemic metabolic profile. Herein, we review the evidence that underscores the significance of BAT-derived metabolites, especially highlighting their role in controlling physiological and metabolic processes involving thermogenesis, substrate metabolism, and other essential biological processes. The conversation extends to their capacity to enhance energy expenditure and mitigate features of obesity and its related metabolic complications. Thus, metabolites derived from BAT may provide new avenues for the discovery of metabolic health-promoting drugs with far-reaching impacts. This review aims to dissect the complexities of the secretory role of BAT in modulating local and systemic metabolism in metabolic health and disease.

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