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Systemic Type 2 Inflammation-Associated Atopic Dermatitis Exacerbates Periodontitis.

INTRODUCTION: Atopic dermatitis (AD) is a prevalent and chronic inflammatory skin disease characterized by Th2 cell-mediated type 2 inflammation. Emerging evidence indicated that AD patients exhibit an increased incidence of oral disorders. In the present study, we sought mechanistic insights into how AD affects periodontitis.

METHODS: Onset of AD was induced by 2,4-dinitrochlorobenzene (DNCB). Furthermore, we induced periodontitis (P) in AD mice. The effect of AD in promoting inflammation and bone resorption in gingiva was evaluated. Hematoxylin and eosin staining, tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase staining, immunofluorescence assay, and flow cytometry were used to investigate histomorphology and cytology analysis, respectively. RNA sequencing of oral mucosa is used tissues to further understand the dynamic transcriptome changes. 16S rRNA microbial analysis is used to profile oral microbial composition.

RESULTS: Compared to control group, mice in AD group showed inflammatory signatures and infiltration of a proallergic Th2 (Th2A)-like subset in oral mucosa but not periodontitis, as identified by not substantial changes in mucosa swelling, alveolar bone loss, and TRAP+ osteoclasts infiltration. Similarly, more Th2A-like cell infiltration and interleukin-4 levels were significantly elevated in the oral mucosa of DNCB-P mice compared to P mice. More importantly, AD exacerbates periodontitis when periodontitis has occurred and the severity of periodontitis increased with aggravation of dermatitis. Transcriptional analysis revealed that aggravated periodontitis was positively correlated with more macrophage infiltration and abundant CCL3 secreted. AD also altered oral microbiota, indicating the re-organization of extracellular matrix.

CONCLUSIONS: These data provide solid evidence about exacerbation of periodontitis caused by type 2 dermatitis, advancing our understanding in cellular and microbial changes during AD-periodontitis progression.

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