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Oral melanoacanthoma: Clinicopathological and immunohistochemical features of a case series and a scoping review.

BACKGROUND: This study presents a case series and scoping review of oral melanoacanthoma to examine its clinical, histopathological, and immunohistochemical characteristics.

METHODS: Nine cases of oral melanoacanthoma were included in the case series. Clinical data were collected from biopsy charts. Hematoxylin-eosin and immunohistochemistry for TRP2, CD3, and CD20 were done. For the scoping review, MEDLINE/PubMed, Web of Science, EMBASE, and Scopus were searched.

RESULTS: Case series: The mean age was 46.8 years (female-to-male ratio 2:1). Lesion's mean size was 11.0 mm (±9.3). Lesions were mainly macular (77.8%) with brown or black coloration (88.9%) and often affected multiple sites (44.4%). The evolution time ranged from 15 days to 96 months. Lesions commonly showed epithelial acanthosis (66.7%), spongiosis (55.6%), exocytosis (77.8%), melanin incontinence (88.9%), and inflammatory infiltrate in the lamina propria (77.8%), from which all showed lymphocytes. TRP2-positive melanocytes were identified in the basal and spinous layer of all cases, and in the superficial layer of three cases. CD3-positive cells predominate over the CD20-positive. Scoping review: 85 cases of oral melanoacanthoma were retrieved from 55 studies. Patients were primarily female (female-to-male ratio 2.2:1), black-skinned (64.1%), with a mean age of 36.13 (± 17.24). Lesions were flat (81.9%), often brown (62.4%). Buccal mucosa was the preferred site (32.9%), followed by multiple sites (28.2%).

CONCLUSION: Oral melanoacanthoma mainly affects women across a wide age range, with lesions commonly appearing as brown/black macules, particularly on the buccal mucosa. TRP2-positive melanocytes and T-lymphocytes were consistently found and could participate in oral melanoacanthoma pathogenesis.

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