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Andrographolide inhibits infectious bronchitis virus-induced apoptosis, pyroptosis, and inflammation.

Antiviral Therapy 2023 October
BACKGROUND: Avian infectious bronchitis virus (IBV), a coronavirus, causes a huge economic loss to the poultry industry. Andrographolide (APL) is a compound with a variety of pharmacological properties, including antiviral and anti-inflammatory effects. In this study, APL was evaluated for antiviral activity by its anti-apoptotic, anti-pyroptosis, and anti-inflammatory effects.

METHODS: The cytotoxicity of APL was determined by the MTT method. We investigated the therapeutic impact of APL on IBV through a plate assay. We explored that APL inhibited IBV-induced apoptosis, pyroptosis, and inflammation in HD11 cells by RT-qPCR and immunofluorescence. Also, it was verified in the clinical chicken embryo trial.

RESULTS: We found that APL down-regulated apoptosis-related genes Caspase-3, Caspase-8, Caspase-9, Bax, Bid, and Bak, down-regulated pyroptosis gene DFNA5, and down-regulated inflammation-related genes (NF-κB, NLRP3, iNOS, TNF-α, and IL-1β). In addition, APL reduced the reactive oxygen species (ROS) production in cells. Finally, clinical trials showed that APL inhibited IBV-induced apoptosis, pyroptosis, and inflammation, as well as reduced the mortality and malformation of chicken embryos.

CONCLUSIONS: In this study, we delved into the antiviral properties of APL in the context of chicken macrophage (HD11) infection with IBV. Our findings confirm that andrographolide effectively inhibits apoptosis, pyroptosis, and inflammation by IBV infection. Furthermore, this inhibition was verified on chicken embryos in vivo. This inhibition suggests a substantial potential for APL as a therapeutic agent to mitigate the harmful effects of IBV on host cells.

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