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Rapid rewarming rate associated with favorable neurological outcomes in patients with post-cardiac arrest syndrome patients treated with targeted temperature management.

AIM: To determine whether the rewarming rate is associated with neurological outcomes in patients with post-cardiac arrest syndrome treated with targeted temperature management (TTM) at 34°C.

METHODS: We conducted a retrospective analysis of a nationwide cohort study of out-of-hospital cardiac arrest in Japan. Adult patients who experienced a return of spontaneous circulation and completed TTM at 34°C between June 2014 and December 2019 were divided equally into three groups (slow, moderate, and rapid) according to their rewarming rates from 34°C to 36°C. The rates of favorable neurological outcomes (Cerebral Performance Category of 1-2 after 30 days) were compared among the groups, and the adjusted odds ratios for a favorable neurological outcome were calculated for the groups.

RESULTS: We analyzed 348, 357, and 358 patients in the slow, moderate, and rapid groups, respectively. The periods of rewarming from 34°C to 36°C were 41.9 ± 10.5, 22.4 ± 1.8, and 12.2 ± 3.6 h, respectively. The number of favorable neurological outcomes after 30 days was 121 (34.8%), 125 (35.0%), and 147 (41.1%), respectively, with no significant differences among the three groups ( p  = 0.145). Rapid rewarming was independently associated with a favorable neurological outcome compared with slow rewarming (adjusted odds ratio 1.57 [95% confidence interval 1.04-2.37]; p  = 0.031).

CONCLUSIONS: Rapid rewarming after TTM at 34°C was associated with a more favorable neurological outcome than slow rewarming.

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