JOURNAL ARTICLE
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Relapsing polychondritis: Best Practice & Clinical Rheumatology.

Relapsing polychondritis (RP) is an uncommon inflammatory disorder that predominantly targets cartilaginous structures. The disease frequently affects the nose, ears, airways, and joints, but it can also impact organs that aren't primarily cartilage-based, such as blood vessels, skin, inner ear, and eyes. Given its infrequent occurrence and recurrent symptoms, patients often experience delays in proper diagnosis. Lately, based on the organs involved, the disease's diverse manifestations have been categorized into specific clinical groups, based on the most likely organ involvement including auricular, nasal, pulmonary, and musculoskeletal. More recently the discovery of a new disease, called (Vacuoles, E1 enzyme, X-linked, Autoinflammatory, Somatic) VEXAS syndrome, due to mutations in UBA1 gene, identified the cause of 8 % of the patients with a clinical diagnosis of RP. VEXAS is likely the cause of a previously described "hematologic subgroup" in RP. This discovery is proof of concept that RP is likely more than one disease (Beck et al., Dec 31 2020; Ferrada et al., 2021). People diagnosed with RP face numerous hurdles, with the quality of their lives and overall prognosis being affected. Diagnosing the condition is particularly challenging due to its fluctuating symptoms, the absence of specific markers, and the lack of universally recognized classification criteria. For a correct diagnosis, it's imperative for healthcare professionals to identify its unique clinical patterns. Moreover, there are no approved metrics to gauge the disease's severity, complicating patient management. This review seeks to equip clinicians with pertinent insights to better diagnose and attend to these complex patients.

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