JOURNAL ARTICLE
META-ANALYSIS
REVIEW
SYSTEMATIC REVIEW
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Effect of soluble fiber on blood pressure in adults: a systematic review and dose-response meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials.

Nutrition Journal 2023 October 14
OBJECTIVES: Pervious epidemiologic evidence indicates that soluble fiber is protective against hypertention: however, randomized controlled trials (RCTs) have presented varying results. In the present study, we aimed to conduct a systematic review and dose-response meta-analysis to summarize published RCTs which assess the effect of soluble fiber supplementation on systolic blood pressure (SBP) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP).

METHODS: Scopus, PubMed, and ISI Web of Sciences were searched to identify relevant studies up to Aug 2022. We estimated the change in blood pressure for each 5 g/d increment in soluble fiber supplementation in each trial and then calculated the weighted mean difference (WMD) and 95%CI using a random-effects model. We estimated dose-dependent effects using a dose-response meta-analysis of differences in means. The risk of bias for study was assessed using the Cochrane tool. Publication bias was evaluated via funnel plot and Begg's test and Egger's test.

RESULTS: Eighty-three eligible studies with total sample size of 5,985 participants were included in the meta-analysis. Soluble fiber supplementation significantly decreased SBP (WMD: -1.36 mmHg, 95% CI: -2.13 to -0.60, P < 0.001; I2  = 47.1%, P < 0.001) and DBP (WMD: -0.72 mmHg, 95% CI: -1.26 to -0.18, P = 0.009; I2  = 45.4%, P < 0.001). Each 5 g/d increment in soluble fiber supplementation had a significant reduction in SBP (WMD: -0.54 mmHg; 95%CI: -0.86, -0.22, P = 0.001; I2  = 52.2, Phet  < 0.001) and DBP (WMD: -0.28 mmHg; 95%CI: -0.49, -0.80, P = 0.007; I2  = 43.1%, Phet  < 0.001). The levels of SBP decreased proportionally with the increase in soluble fiber supplementation up to 20 g/d (MD20g/d : -1.79 mmHg, 95%CI: -2.86, -0.71).

CONCLUSION: Current evidence indicated the beneficial effect of soluble fiber supplementation on blood pressure. Our findings suggest that soluble fiber supplementation could contribute to the management of hypertension and the reduction of cardiovascular disease risk.

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