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Novel Insight into the Cellular and Molecular Signalling Pathways on Cancer Preventing Effects of Hibiscus sabdariffa : A Review.

A category of diseases known as cancer includes abnormal cell development and the ability to infiltrate or spread to other regions of the body, making them a major cause of mortality worldwide. Chemotherapy, radiation, the use of cytotoxic medicines, and surgery are the mainstays of cancer treatment today. Plants or products produced from them hold promise as a source of anti-cancer medications that have fewer adverse effects. Due to the presence of numerous phytochemicals that have been isolated from various parts of the Hibiscus sabdariffa (HS) plant, including anthocyanin, flavonoids, saponins, tannins, polyphenols, organic acids, caffeic acids, citric acids, protocatechuic acid, and others, extracts of this plant have been reported to have anti-cancer effects. These compounds have been shown to reduce cancer cell proliferation, induce apoptosis, and cause cell cycle arrest. They also increase the expression levels of the cell cycle inhibitors (p53, p21, and p27) and the pro-apoptotic proteins (BAD, Bax, caspase 3, caspase 7, caspase 8, and caspase 9). This review highlights various intracellular signalling pathways involved in cancer preventive potential of HS.

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