Desmin and its molecular chaperone, the αB-crystallin: How post-translational modifications modulate their functions in heart and skeletal muscles?
Maintenance of the highly organized striated muscle tissue requires a cell-wide dynamic network through protein-protein interactions providing an effective mechanochemical integrator of morphology and function. Through a continuous and complex trans-cytoplasmic network, desmin intermediate filaments ensure this essential role in heart and in skeletal muscle. Besides their role in the maintenance of cell shape and architecture (permitting contractile activity efficiency and conferring resistance towards mechanical stress), desmin intermediate filaments are also key actors of cell and tissue homeostasis. Desmin participates to several cellular processes such as differentiation, apoptosis, intracellular signalisation, mechanotransduction, vesicle trafficking, organelle biogenesis and/or positioning, calcium homeostasis, protein homeostasis, cell adhesion, metabolism and gene expression. Desmin intermediate filaments assembly requires αB-crystallin, a small heat shock protein. Over its chaperone activity, αB-crystallin is involved in several cellular functions such as cell integrity, cytoskeleton stabilization, apoptosis, autophagy, differentiation, mitochondria function or aggresome formation. Importantly, both proteins are known to be strongly associated to the aetiology of several cardiac and skeletal muscles pathologies related to desmin filaments disorganization and a strong disturbance of desmin interactome. Note that these key proteins of cytoskeleton architecture are extensively modified by post-translational modifications that could affect their functional properties. Therefore, we reviewed in the herein paper the impact of post-translational modifications on the modulation of cellular functions of desmin and its molecular chaperone, the αB-crystallin.
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